Sunday, August 23, 2020

The Powers of the State vs the Powers of the Federal Government free essay sample

There is a progressing banter among centralists and decentralist about state, nearby and government law guideline. This paper will show what the contentions would be among centralists and decentralists on The Medicaid subsidizing of Planned Parenthood, Energy help for low-salary families and the condemning change for guilty parties indicted for rocks charges. It is imperative to remember the Tenth Amendment in accordance with the saved forces of the states. Forces of the States versus the Powers of the Federal Government There is a progressing banter among centralists and decentralist about state, neighborhood and government law guideline. As indicated by the content, centralists are individuals who favor national activity over activity at the state and nearby levels (Magleby amp; Light, 2009). As indicated by the content, decentralists are individuals who favor state or nearby activity instead of national activity (Magleby amp; Light, 2009). In April 2011 Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels (R) marked HEA 1210 enactment that kept Planned Parenthood from getting Medicaid reserves. We will compose a custom exposition test on The Powers of the State versus the Powers of the Federal Government or then again any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Arranged Parenthood of Indiana gets $3 million every year in government reserves (Weiner, 2011). Arranged Parenthood is a center for ladies that have been referred to give premature birth benefits just as other family arranging administrations. Some accept that the Governor needed this enactment marked into law to keep ladies from utilizing Medicaid assets to get a fetus removal. Arranged Parenthood has been an objective of hostile to premature birth associations that remain outside of the center with signs to deflect ladies from getting a fetus removal. Government law disallows states from choosing which association gets Medicaid subsidizing in any way, shape or form other than nature of care (Weiner, 2011). Confining Medicaid financing from Planned Parenthood could be negative to the wellbeing of thousands of ladies that get fundamental human services from the facility, on the grounds that not the entirety of the patients are there for a fetus removal. For this situation, centralists would advance the contention that State of Indiana ought not be permitted to direct whether Planned Parenthood gets Medicaid. Fetus removal is legitimate in Indiana and centralists would contend that the state doesn't reserve the privilege to tall a ladies how to manage her body. Limiting these assets would jeopardize that lives of clueless Planned Parenthood patients. Decentralists would contend that the state has each option to conclude who can and can't get Medicaid and for what reason. Forces of the States versus the Powers of the Federal Government Decentralists would contend that those forthcoming patients could go to another facility for their human services needs as Planned Parenthood isn't the main social insurance center that acknowledges and gets Medicaid subsidizing. In this specific case the President of Planned Parenthood prosecuted the case and the Federal Government decided that the state can't limit Medicaid subsidizing to the facility. A great many wrongdoers indicted for rocks charges will escape jail early gratitude to a condemning change that became effective. Congress passed the Fair Sentencing Act in August 2010, changing the 100-to-1 divergence between least sentences for split and powder cocaine to 18 to 1 (Cratty, 2011). Guilty parties will have around three years shaved from their condemning and will get qualified for early discharge. Centralists would advance the contention this new condemning change is reasonable in light of the fact that it generally influences destitute individuals that were indicted for rocks charges. They would likewise contend that rocks is less expensive than powder cocaine and lower pay individuals can't manage the cost of it. When lower salary wrongdoers are gotten with rocks they are indicted and given a more drawn out sentences than different guilty parties got and sentenced for having powder cocaine. Pundits of the old condemning framework state it was unjustifiable to African-Americans, who make up most of those sentenced for having and conveying break (Cratty, 2011). Centralists would contend that the condemning change is an invited change for these guilty parties. Centralist would contend that the penitentiaries are stuffed and should be exhausted a piece. Decentralists would advance a contention this condemning change ought to be dismissed in light of the fact that these wrongdoers are as yet liable of these rocks and ought not be remunerated with an early discharge date. They would likewise contend that these guilty parties that are being let out early in view of Powers of the States versus the Powers of the Federal Government this changed law will simply get captured on another medication charge and afterward hope to get out early once more. They can likewise contend that this updates on the changed condemning will provoke groups of indicted wrongdoers assault authorities in inquisitive about their relative getting out early just in light of the fact that they have a medication charge. General society may disapprove of these prisoners celebrating getting out early when they are liable of the ownership of medications. Decentralists would contend this is a kick to the face to the war on drugs. The U. S. Division of Health and Human Services has assigned $1. 7 billion for the program so far this year, down from $4. 5 billion a year ago and $5 billion the prior year (Reuters, 2011). Low salary families rely on vitality help to warm their homes through the virus winter months. Centralists would advance a contention that the arrangement to distribute less cash towards vitality help is a decent one. They would state that individuals need to discover another approach to warm their homes and not depend on the legislature to do as such. They would state that the administration can't bear the cost of this cost and that individuals should get productive work to raise their families. Decentralists would advance a contention that this vitality help store ought not be lessen and ought to be expanded. They would contend that in this questionable economy that more families are battling than any time in recent memory and need a little assistance to get by. They would contend that with the activity advertise in its present express that more individuals have been jobless and can't get a new line of work to help their families. They would likewise contend that only one out of every odd family that is profiting by the vitality help is jobless. A ton of families are battling with costs from everything from oil to staple goods going up and their pay is going down. Decentralists would contend that in the hours of this financial downturn that presently isn't an ideal opportunity to desert its residents when they need the government’s help so severely. They would Powers of the States versus the Powers of the Federal Government likewise remind the open that these residents that they are relinquishing are the residents answerable for choosing them for office.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Barbara Stoller Millers Bhagavad Gita

The critique by Bhagavad-gita is an advanced interpretation of Bhagavad-gita by Barbara Stoller Miller, which quickly presents Krishna's Legal Counsel in War. This is a genuinely straightforward yet nitty gritty clarification of the Hindu confidence and the contentions humanity experiences when choosing the best approach to follow. Interpretation is a sort of verse that you can partition into 18 precepts and sections on the off chance that you want. Each instructing centers around the profound control uncovered through Hindi god Krishna, and in the most significant phase of his life Arjuna looks for information. Gita has numerous English interpretations. Maybe the most discernible are Swami Prabhavananda and Isherwood (, yet Swami Nikhilananda, S. Interpretation of Rada Krishnan and Barbara. Stoller Miller is scholarly and abstract. The writing of Aurobindo about Sanskrit is exceptionally inconvenient, however it is as yet strong. (Bhagavad gita and its data, Aurobindo) Bhagavad Gita, space science isn't limited by any strict rank or confidence. There is no limit. It just perceives genuine quintessence, that is, all individuals 's Atmans (soul). More or less, Bhagavad Gita is the main scaffold of unceasing presence among man and God ... an individual who shows you the method of salvation. There is no other record showing steps in such exact and clear terms in the earth. The analysis by Bhagavad-gita is a cutting edge interpretation of Bhagavad-gita by Barbara Stoller Miller, which quickly presents Krishna's Legal Counsel in War. This is a genuinely basic however definite clarification of the Hindu confidence and the contentions humanity experiences when choosing the best approach to follow. Interpretation is a sort of verse that you can isolate into 18 regulations and sections on the off chance that you want. - Confession v. Gita When old individuals attempted to get religion, they were bound to be related with higher forces, otherwise called God. Many various religions have been set up after some time far and wide, and tales about conversing with God are frequently found in crafted by gatherings of these various individuals. This will enable others to comprehend and follow similar convictions

Friday, August 21, 2020

London Olympics 2012

Presentation The accompanying exposition is on occasion the board and it explicitly searches for manners by which the occasion coordinators of the London Olympics 2012 can make the occasion one of the most important encounters to the going to visitors.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on London Olympics 2012 explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Description The city of London has the benefit of facilitating the occasion this year and it is the expectation of everybody that the occasion coordinators will give the best understanding to whole watchers. The administration of the occasion requires smarts in venture the board and coordination of exercises (Hermes, Loos and Thomas, 2008). The occasion presents a tremendous promoting advantage for the nation just as financial advantages. Promoting opportunity will originate from the display of the country’s items (Jones, 2001). The occasion will draw in excess of 9,000,000 guests to London and 10, 5000 m embers. This article will concentrate on the best way to make the occasion effective. Occasions are events that are arranged or spontaneous. This article will anyway talk about explicitly Olympics 2012 that is a super occasion. A uber occasion is an occasion that has an overall unmistakable quality and cooperation (Getz, 2000). Hypothetical points of view of occasion the board Event the board is worried about the association of assets, for example, time and HR just as money to guarantee that the exercises occur in an opportune way and that they bring about the planned result (Getz, 2007). At the point when occasion the board is seen from that viewpoint, occasion the executives would then be able to be depicted as association of exercises procedurally and expertly to guarantee that the event has accomplished the ideal result (Goldblatt, 2005). When taking a gander at it from this viewpoint it is anything but difficult to concentrate on the advancement of the exercises that make an ar ranged occasion effective just as adjust the exercises extensively. From an undertaking, the executives viewpoint the occasion the board has five significant stages talked about underneath (Allen et al., 2008). The principal stage is the examination that includes directing a fundamental research with a point of getting data on the occasion booked to occur. It includes completing a possibility concentrate on the host city of the occasion (Lindlof and Taylor, 2002).Advertising Looking for article on business financial aspects? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other looks into from the Sydney Olympics express visitors’ disappointment over multiplication of sellers and advertising all through the occasion that made the experience sickening. The guests were keen on allure and rush as a major aspect of their experience (Malhotra, 2002). The guests were of various socioeconomics as far as age, race, and nation of root. The poss ibility study helps in distinguishing materials and administrations required for the accomplishment of the occasion (Getz, 1998). Subsequent to directing the attainability study, the following stage includes structure. This worries giving the guests a significant encounter utilizing the six D’s of experience. These are: Details of the curios, which are significant in London experience particularly in relics, for example, logos, subtleties of the stage execution and the brandishing exercises. Delineation of the normal experience is additionally a significant piece of setting up the London Olympic guests with a thought of how the genuine experience will be. The other experience is the specific advantages that the guests will get. For London Olympics it is the marvelousness, the craftsmanship, innovation and foundation that will make it energizing. Settling on the picture or position of the occasion is significant. The London Olympic picture is yet to come out completely, howeve r the Olympic itself is sufficient brands to showcase the brandishing experience. Exhibit of the experience has been finished by publicizing the occasion through sites and advertisements that show how it will resemble. Conveyance of the experience is the exercises done during the games, for example, giving guests energizing involvement with the settings and outside the scenes. Enjoyment is the visitors’ valuation for the experience. The London Olympic coordinators can acquire this by giving ancient rarities of the award holders and champs just as other memorabilia things identified with the occasion (Gilmore and Pine, 1999). The plan centers around the imaginative part of the occasion and concerns the appearance and enrichments that will make the spot alluring and essential. This perspective gives the occasion uniqueness from different occasions (Gilmore and Pine, 1998). The structure procedure requires the occasion coordinators to cooperate and conceptualize thoughts on the sort of workmanship and plans to use in the occasion (Funke, Meusburger and Wunder, 2009). The plan brings the creative part of occasion and contributes tremendously to the heritage of the experience. It might include parts of lighting, calligraphy, painting, and the general course of action of the setting particularly during the London Olympic 2012 opening and shutting services which are useful in publicizing London Olympic and engaging guests (Goldblatt, 1997).Advertising We will compose a custom article test on London Olympics 2012 explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third significant part of occasion the board for joining while overseeing occasion is arranging. This stage is basic for the London Olympic 2012 so as to give the guests and onlookers a superior encounter. Unique arranging is required like evaluating the danger of the occasion particularly because of fear mongering exercises. This requires specials advertising and security measures to draw in g uests. The part of time is basic in guaranteeing that proper arrangements that are conceivable before the occasion happens are done (Compton et al., 2007). Time arranging guarantees that the arrangements are auspicious. The other part of arranging manages space, which investigates scenes. For London Olympics 2012, the settings are the Olympic arena, the Aquatic place, Velodrome and Handball Arena. Arranging includes taking a gander at the quantity of individuals every scene can oblige. It additionally investigates the parts of movement particularly on the grounds that traffic in London can be an issue during the occasion. The other significant viewpoints are the enrichments, and the presence of execution stage to guarantee that it is noticeable to all participants of the opening and shutting services. Other than arranging existence, planning likewise includes planning for the occasion (Higham Hinch, 2001). The fourth part of occasion the executives is that of coordination of exercis es. It is hard for the undertaking chief to sort out the occasion alone (Foley, Perry and Rumpf, 1996). It includes appointment of duties to trusted and skilled people who can convey brings about the zone of their ability (Schofield and Thompson, 2002). Coordination includes imparting the plans and choices made with lucidity to all partners so as to have a legitimate execution of the considerable number of exercises. Coordination angle includes staffing, as staffs execute the arrangement of the occasion (O’Toole, 2000). The last part of occasion the executives is that of assessment. The coordinators can gain proficiency with the need to adjust among promoting and experience to abstain from making interruption and disappointment to the guests like on account of Sydney Olympics (Smith, 2008). The other one is of giving acceptable guest experience as on account of Beijing 2008, which was a fruitful occasion (Kolaja, 2011).Advertising Searching for article on business financial aspects? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More To prevail with regards to leading assessment it is important to direct a pre occasion overview on the desire for the participants and post occasion study on the fulfillment of the participants (Gold, 1958). This assists with assessing regions that need improvement in future (Malhotra, 2002). The most effective method to make London Olympics critical To make the London Olympics 2012 a triumph it is important to investigate elements of occasion the board that finish into its prosperity. These components contribute enormously to the achievement or disappointment of an occasion. Timing The principal factor is the planning of the occasion. This respects whether individuals will be accessible or not. On account of London Olympics, the occasion will happen from July 27th to twelfth August 2012 and Paralympics from 29th August to ninth September 2012 (Parry and Shone, 2011). Account arranging Currently the coordinators of the London Olympics 2012 are taking a shot at an expected spending pl an of  £9 billion. The majority of this cost will provide food for security. The focal government will meet piece of the financial plan. Ticket deals, broadcasting rights, and sponsorships will assume a critical job in financing the spending plan. The guests will absolutely get an incentive for their cash through the security, and infrastructural advancements set up to make their experience energizing and essential. In the wake of making the financial plan, the subsequent stage is to search for the backers of the occasion. The sponsorships are vital in giving the vital assets to make the occasion effective (Haug and Teune, 2008). The exposure and publicizing costs are a portion of the expenses acquired as a feature of occasion association (Arcodia and Reid, 2002). HR The other factor other than the accounts that is basic in the planning of the Olympics 2012 is the part of HR the board. The staffs incorporates individuals whose work is to give security in the field, the setting pla nners, originators, the telecasters, the food providers of the visitors and visit advisers for help the participants on movement issues (Baum and Lockstone, 2007). Legitimate arrangement of the HR will be basic in making the London Olympic 2012 effective. Right now the London Olympic supervisory group is depending on the seventy thousand volunteers to help them in the arrangements and during the game time frame. The game producers make

Achilles: The Tragic Hero Essay -- The Iliad Essays

While inquiring about saints of great writing it is difficult to overlook Achilles from The Iliad by Homer. Beginning from the time that his mom Thetis plunged him in the River Styx, making his body for all intents and purposes strong, clearly the Greeks had a legend really taking shape (Achilles, 173). His physical quality and diligence to stifle the Trojan culture is immaculate by some other figure in folklore (Achilles, 173). In The Iliad Achilles isn't just a saint, however a sad legend who encounters a destruction and understands that it is an immediate consequence of his activities. Alongside this fundamental meaning of being a grievous saint, there are additionally three prominent qualities. Lamentable legends show â€Å"fatal ignorance†, are â€Å"prompted by will or circumstance†, and are engaged with a â€Å"binding obligation† (Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, 1126). These three viewpoints can be integrated into the possibility that unfort unate saints make at least one mistakes, coming about because of obliviousness or an individual obstruction and are committed to experience their error(s) as a defeat. Achilles in The Iliad by Homer is a heartbreaking saint since he shows â€Å"fatal ignorance†, is â€Å"prompted by will or circumstance†, and is engaged with a â€Å"binding obligation† all through the whole sonnet. Achilles is a shocking legend since he shows obliviousness towards his environmental factors in The Iliad. Toward the start of the epic, â€Å"Achilles is given not one but rather two destinies: to kick the bucket radiantly at Troy or to live namelessly at home† (Harris, 262). With this choice Achilles chooses to join the Greek powers and do battle against Troy. This, obviously, ensures his pre-full grown passing and demonstrates how strange and shaky his brain was during this time, for h... ... settled on poor choices that prompted his ruin and could have handily kept himself from his initial passing in the Trojan War; this makes him a lamentable saint in The Iliad. Works Cited Achilles. Epics for Students. Ed. Marie Lazzari. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 173. Print. Hamilton, Edith. Folklore: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. Warner Books ed. New York: Warner, 1999. Print. Harris, Stephen L., and Gloria Platzer. Traditional Mythology: Images and Insights. second ed. N.p.: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1998. Print. Homer. The Iliad. Trans. W. H. D. Awaken. New York: New American Library, 2007. Print. Knox, Bernard. Achilles. Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism. Ed. Lynn M. Zott. Vol. 61. Detroit: Gale, 1990. 129-50. Writing Resource Center. Web. 11 Oct. 2015. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995. Print.

Sunday, July 5, 2020

Leadership - Goal-path Theory - Free Essay Example

Nowadays, one of the most respectful theories of leadership is the goal-path theory. Developed by Robert House, the goal-path theory is a model of contingency that extracts the key elements of the investigation performed by the Ohio University about the initial structure, consideration and motivational theory of the expectations (House, 1971). The theory , that has as predecessors the work s of Evans in 1970, House in 1971, House and Dessler in 1974 and House and Mitchell in 1974, and that emerged as an alternative to the behavioral model of leadership, It is based on how leaders motivate their followers to perform better and became more satisfied with their work (Evans, 1974). It tries to clarify how the conduct of the leader influences on the satisfaction and performance of the subordinates, similar to the expectation theory of Victor Vroom (Van Eerde, Thierry, 1996). Also explaining how the behavior of the leader affects the satisfaction and performance and stating th at the perceived value of a reward produce certain behaviors, well known also as the expectation and the preference for those results is called by Vroom as valence (Vroom, 1964). The essence of the path-goal theory is that the leaders role is not to assist followers in attaining their goals or to provide direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or the organization (House, 1996). The path- goal term is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify and clear the road to help their followers to move from where they are to a level in which they achieve their work goals and make the journey more enjoyable by reducing the obstacles and dangers. According to this theory, the behavior of a leader is acceptable to subordinates to the extent that it is seen by them as immediate satisfaction or as a means of future satisfactionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s source. The behavior of a leader is motivational in the level that leader makes the subordinate to require satisfaction for an effective performance, the leader provide instruction, guidance, support and rewards that are required for effective performance (Ashour, Johns, 1983). To prove these statements, House identified four leadership behaviors. The managerial leader allows subordinates know what is expected of them, schedules the work to be performed and gives specific guidelines how to accomplish tasks. This is parallel to the dimension of Ohio State on initiating structure. A friendly leader shows support and concern for the needs of their subordinates; this essentially stands for the dimension of the consideration of the University of Ohio. The leader that participates consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions before make a decision. . The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects subordinates to perform at their highest level. In contrast to the Fiedler standpoint of the behavior of the leader, House assumed that l eaders are flexible (Schuler, 1976).The theory of goal-path then means that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors depending on the situation. The theory proposes two kinds of situational or contingency variables that affect and level the relationship between leadership behavior and outcome, those in the environment that are beyond the control of the subordinate, as in task structure, the formal system of authority and group work and those that are part of the subordinate personal characteristics as in locus of control, experience and perceived capacity (Schriesheim, Schriesheim, 1980). Environmental factors determine the type of leader behavior required as a complement if the results of the subordinate will be maximized, while the personal characteristics determine how the environment and the behavior of the leader will be interpreted. Thus, the theory proposes that the behavior of leader will not be effective if it becomes redundant with the sources of the envi ronment structure or inconsistent with the characteristics of the subordinates. Many concepts derived from the theory of path-goal, since the ones that states that directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when the tasks are ambiguous or when tension are highly structured and well designed, the same it might be perceived as redundant to employees. high experience; to the ones that states that directive leadership leads to higher employee satisfaction only where there is a substantial conflict in the workgroup, also stating that the subordinates with internal locus of control, those who believe that control their own destiny, will be more satisfied with a participation style than the ones with external locus of control, that will be more satisfied with a managerial style. The research used to validate these concepts is generally encouraging. The evidence supports the logic underlying the theory. That is, the performance and the satisfaction of the employee are probably po sitively influenced when the leader compensates for missing skills from the employee or the work environment. However, the leader who dedicates time explaining the tasks when they are already clear or when the employee has the ability and experience to handle them without interference, may prove ineffective because the worker will see this type of management as redundant or even as an insulting behavior. The path-goal model differs from the situational model of Hersey and Blanchard in 1969, in which the leader must adapt to their level of development of the subordinates, or from contingency theory, that seeks to match the style of leader with specific situational variables. In the model path-goal the leaderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s style relates to the characteristics of the subordinate and the type of work environment. House and Mitchell argue that a leader can display any or all the styles according to the type of situation (House, 1996).Those more effective leaders, as we mentioned before, will be the ones that can adapt their style to the specific situations. A derivative research performed by Wofford and Liska in 1993, compiling more than 120 experiments, found that the results of the different studies varied notably if a different instrument of measurement is used , even when valuing the same dimensions (Wofford, Liska, 1994). They also found that the characteristics of the job influenced highly on the conduct and style of leadership and on the performance of the subalterns. When situational changes occur, leaders are expected to change their conduct with respect to the follower (Ivancevich, 1997). The leader must present ability to identify which behavior is the most effective based on the situation that comes their way, and may arise from the type of follower they face (Ivancevich, 1997). Therefore they identified that the key factors in this theory are the behavior and situational factors, and that the correspondence established between both factors will result in effective leadership emphasizing again, that the primary role of the leader is to motivate their followers clarify the ways that help them achieve their objectives or goals (Hogg, 2012). In terms of supporting conduct, it will have more positive effects when the employee is in need of emotional or philological support when facing a task. The research is based by dividing groups of subalterns in conditions of poor clarity, interesting, but without structure; and conditions of high prediction or routines. For the first case, the researchers will find positive effects in motivation and performance only if the leader shows a directive conduct and the contrary effect will be the result of the leader showing a supporting conduct or consideration. In terms of the empirical support of the theory, it is proved that the supporting conduct is generally linked to positive attitudes of the subordinates under difficult tasks, for the directive conduct the results are always less consistent. Kerr and Jermier extended the line of research, to the extent of the substitute for the leadership, where they focused their investigation on the conditions under the leadership is unnecessary due to the capacity of the subaltern, the clarity of the organizational system and procedures (Kerr, Jermier, 1978). However some researchers have revived the hypothesis derived from path-goal theory and has found minimal empirical support (Podsakoff, Organ, 1986). In conclusion, a manager centered and focused on his subordinates will not only offer great salaries and promotions but he will also offer support, encouragement, security and respect. This type of manager will be also sensible to the differences in between his teams and he will adapt the rewards to each subordinate. The subalterns of a manager oriented with the path-goal theory will know exactly what level of productivity or performance they need to reach to obtain bonus, raises, or promotions (Vecchio, , Justin, Pearce, 2008). For the path-goal model is important to define the objectives first, in order to establish a future flow of great performance for the long and short term. It is important to mention that this definition will depend of the internal faith of the leader, based on his capacities and competences (Stinson, Johnson, 1975). Coincidentally with the other situational theories, the leader must be aware of the reasons why leadership continuously changes, for which he should be prepared to, develop a wide variety of responses to efficiently allow each situation that he will experience (Schriesheim, Chester, Mary Ann Von Glinow, 1977). The future prospects of the path-goal theory point in the direction of further research leading to strengthen refine and expand their premises incorporating some additional moderating variables and shed their behavioral bias. However it is possible that the assigned rewards not meet the expectations of subordinates and that the resources are not entirely adequate and sufficient for the goal, it can be affirmed given the increasingly strong tendency to achieve higher levels of productivity with resources scarce (Fulk, Wendler, 1982). Thus we have from how leaders motivate their followers, leadership can be positive if it is associated with rewards or negative if the motivation is based on punishment, not to mention the tendency or propensity to prioritize, this classification at all simplistic answers to behavioral character is assumed to understand motivation as a stimulus that determines behavior (Ivancevich, Matteson, Freedman, Phillips, 1990).There is a great necessity to have with a leadership theory that take in consideration context variables in order to know which actions the leader shall take and which ones he should not (Triandis, 1993). Although this model indicates logically a play form of leadership, it is not entirely effective for all organizations or for all types of people who are involved in carrying out the work. That is why efforts have been made to find valid classifications for leadership styles, understanding the style as a set of behaviors that leader exhibit and the particular way they are perceived by their subordinates, that is in fact the leadership in the practice. The theoretical effort to attribute classifications in path theory is a resource for the leader to choose or modify their particular style to influence in other way, leading to different behaviors, however, analysis has realized that leaders do not maintain permanent and one-line fashion style, in fact it changes according to the circumstances, raising a claim for more research (Greene, 1974). . House, R. J. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative science quarterly, 321-339 Evans, M. G. (1974). Extensions of a path-goal theory of motivation. Stinson, J. E., Johnson, T. W. (1975). The path-goal theory of leadership: A partial test and suggested refinement. Academy o f Management Journal, 18(2), 242-252 Schriesheim, J. F., Schriesheim, C. A. (1980). A Test of the pathÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ goal theory of leadership and some suggested directions for future research. Personnel Psychology, 33(2), 349-370. Ashour, A. S., Johns, G. (1983). Leader influence through operant principles: A theoretical and methodological framework.Human Relations,36(7), 603-626 Schuler, R. S. (1976). Participation with supervisor and subordinate authoritarianism: A path-goal theory reconciliation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 320-325. Wofford, J. C., Liska, L. Z. (1994). Path-goal theories of leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 19(4), 857-876. Podsakoff, P. M., Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of management, 12(4), 531-544 Kerr, S., Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational behavior and human performance, 22(3), 375-403. Hogg, M. A., van Knippenberg, D., Rast, D. E. (2012). Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Review, 37(2), 232-255 Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Freedman, S. M., Phillips, J. S. (1990). Worksite stress management interventions. American Psychologist, 45(2), 252 House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-352. Schriesheim, Chester, and Mary Ann Von Glinow. (1977). The path-goal theory of leadership: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Academy of Management Journal 20.3, 398-405. Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., Pearce, C. L. (2008). The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a pathÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ goal theory framework. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 71-82. Van Eerde , W., Thierry, H. (1996). Vrooms expectancy models and work-related criteria: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 81(5), 575. Fulk, J., Wendler, E. R. (1982). Dimensionality of leaderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ subordinate interactions: A pathà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ goal investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30(2), 241-264. Greene, C. N. (1974). The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: A Replication and an Analysis of Causality. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1974, No. 1, pp. 47-47). Academy of Management. Vroom, V. (1964). Expectancy theory. Triandis, H. C. (1993). The contingency model in cross-cultural perspective

Saturday, June 27, 2020

How to Write an Essay for IELTS

How to Write an Essay for IELTS? English is a power world known language, which leads businesses, countries, continents, rally people from whole the world. And due to that, more and more people in recent years want to pass international exams, such as TOEFL, CAE, IELTS (International English Language Testing System), FCE and a lot of others. On the one hand, there are people who need such certificate to confirm the level of English reading, listening and writing skills, on the other hand, this document gives a perfect chance for everyone to get an   immigration visa, in order to build a successful career in the one of the European countries or to find a good job or study abroad. This article presents such an international system as IELTS and shows the right methods of preparing for its Writing Part. Firstly, a few words should be told about this exam. IELTS was designed to test the level of the English knowledge by the three international organizations, the leaders in examination field. They are Cambridge English Language Assessment (CELA),   the British Council and IELTS Australia. Thus, it is an irreplaceable step in everyones’ dreams’ implementation if they plan to change a place of living, want to find a perspective workplace or decide to investigate universities in any of the English-speaking countries. IELTS test results may help everyone to reach even a particular dream, because this test results are now admitted by more than 10,000 organizations in 150 countries of the world, including immigration agencies, universities, colleges, famous employers, professional worldwide organizations, and other public institutions in a lot of countries, among which are: United Kingdom, Australia, Italy, Germany and others well-known ones. Taking the IELTS exam, everyone should be ready to be tested on the four main language skills: listening, reading, writing and speaking. IELTS Writing is a test system which check the written English skills, the total duration of which is 60 minutes. The IELTS Writing block consists of two tasks: the first task (150 words) it is a description of a graph or a graphic pattern (report) and the second task (250 words) is an essay one. Now, we are going to understand how to prepare properly to write the second part of the IELTS Writing block. As Writing is evaluated on four parameters, each of which carries 25% of the assessment, we will try to consider the percent correct preparation, taking into account these parameters. IELTS essay is a specific written work. Word â€Å"Specific† means a special approach to its writing. So, how about the IELTS Writing test? Do you know that in consequence with the official statistics of the IELTS Writing Exam is the hardest? When you understand clearly that you really need to pass this exam try to do the next options first of all: Arrange an every day meeting with your tutor to check the essay, which you prepared; Ask your friend/girlfriend to check the essay at home; Visit any essay writing courses, which help you to prepare your essay. If you still decide to prepare for essay writing with your own, first of all, we advise to stay focused, read the task and just then begin to write. Do that only when you exactly imagine what will be the outcome of your story. It may take you near ten minutes to think about the essay plan and emphasize all the information which you are going to use in the essay. In the written part of the IELTS exam, you will need to show your vocabulary’s rich. Therefore, check also your text on the presence of â€Å"words-parasites† or repeated words. COGNIZE YOURSELF AS A WRITER â€Å"Cognize yourself† is one of the most famous philosophical statements. What attitude does it have to the essay writing? Did Platon mean the IELTS test have been writing down his thoughts? Of course not, but The idea is that you should check your mistakes when you write an essay. The point is not to find out all fatal mistakes, but little ones in order to save time on the exam. Instead, it will be more useful for you to check for common essay mistakes. As a rule, each student creates a list of his/hers typical, popular errors during the IELTS Writing preparation. WRITE A LOT TO GET BETTER The only way to complete successfully essay writing part is to write a lot and often. The regular practice will improve your skills and expand knowledge, so do not neglect it. The best option is to use special aids, which contains examples of essays and assignments to them.   The more you practice, the more likely you will have time to keep within the allotted few minutes to check your work during the main IELTS exam. The practice will allow you to fix in mind the structure of different types of essays, the approximate time which required for various types of writing tasks and the basic thoughts on a given topic, and spend the precious minutes on the test. First, we have to note that you can find a great variety of topics for essays writing on the Internet and after a couple months of practice in such writing you realize that in fact the common themes are very limited. There is a set of common themes, such as society communication, environmental pollution, harmful lifestyle, modern technologies, the relationship of children and parents, relations between teenagers etc. And of these topics have already formulated the final theme, paraphrased, are specified. And of these topics have already formulated the final theme. Thus, if you are able to determine for itself several abstracts in each of these subjects, then you will pass the exam with ease because you will you already prepared theses for the particular subject and not waste time on think about the structure or idea. Remember that the exam time is enough only for the transfer of ready-made ideas on paper, you have no extra minutes to think about the issue. Therefore, think about all the themes at home, and practice to write an exam in the quiet environment. Quite a large list of topics you can find here. Read more Essay Writing articles: THE SEVEN RULES OF USING MLA ESSAY FORMAT HOW TO GENERATE AN ESSAY CITATION LIST IN FOUR EASY STEPS HOW TO FORMAT ESSAY. EXAMPLE MLA, APA ESSAY FORMAT UNDERSTAND YOUR MISTAKES It will be not enough just to watch and write texts because you also need to work on a lot of mistakes. You have to study grammar and spelling   in-depth, drawing attention to the verbs, the construction and alignment proposals, punctuation and spelling difficult words. The essay must be checked by the experienced teacher because it is not easy to prepare for IELTS essay without attending special courses. And, of course, you must not forget to expand constantly your vocabulary the lack of the right words often prevents to express our thoughts   in right way and affects badly on essay’s quality. FIND THE TUTOR Find the teacher who will check your essay. It is desirable to find a native-speaker teacher specializing in IELTS. He will give you good advice, assess your essay under the same criteria as the examiner will. However, if you are sure that you can understand the structure and all the specifics yourself, it is possible just to limit by any native-speaker who will simply test your grammatical errors, syntax, punctuation and natural sounding. REMEMBER ABOUT OFFICIAL ESSAY STRUCTURE The types of essays are divided into 3 types: Argument essay (agree or disagree); Discussion essay (discuss both views and give your opinion); Advantages / disadvantages of the statement, problems / solutions. Total official structure of the essay is: The introduction 2-3 sentences. Paraphrasing topic (general statement); The first paragraph here you should conclude the topic without giving your opinion; The second paragraph reasons why, arguments, examples; Third paragraph reasons why/arguments/examples Summary 1-2 sentences. Final short paragraph. Paraphrase the main topic and express your views about the whole essay. You can not write any new ideas, just paraphrasing what has been written above. Very briefly.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Heuristics The Psychology of Mental Shortcuts

Heuristics (also called â€Å"mental shortcuts† or â€Å"rules of thumb) are efficient mental processes that help humans solve problems and learn new concepts. These processes make problems less complex by ignoring some of the information that’s coming into the brain, either consciously or unconsciously. Today, heuristics  have become an influential concept in the areas  of judgment and decision-making. Key Takeaways: Heuristics Heuristics are efficient mental processes (or mental shortcuts)  that help humans solve problems or learn a new concept.In the 1970s, researchers Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman identified three key heuristics: representativeness, anchoring and adjustment, and availability.The work of Tversky and Kahneman led to the development of the heuristics and biases research program. History and Origins Gestalt psychologists postulated that humans solve problems and perceive objects based on heuristics. In the early 20th century, the psychologist Max Wertheimer identified laws by which humans group objects together into patterns (e.g. a cluster of dots in the shape of a rectangle). The heuristics most commonly studied today are those that deal with decision-making. In the 1950s, economist and political scientist Herbert Simon published his A  Behavioral Model of Rational Choice, which focused on the concept of  on bounded rationality:  the idea that people must make decisions with limited time, mental resources, and information. In 1974, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman pinpointed specific mental processes used to simplify decision-making. They showed that humans rely on a limited set of heuristics when making decisions with information about which they are uncertain—for example, when deciding whether to exchange money for a trip overseas now or a week from today. Tversky and Kahneman also showed that, although heuristics are useful, they can lead to errors in thinking that are both predictable and unpredictable. In the 1990s, research on heuristics, as exemplified by the work of Gerd Gigerenzer’s research group, focused on how factors in the environment impact thinking–particularly, that the strategies the mind uses are influenced by the environment–rather than the idea that the mind uses mental shortcuts to save time and effort. Significant Psychological Heuristics Tversky and Kahneman’s 1974 work, Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, introduced three key characteristics: representativeness, anchoring and adjustment, and availability.   The  representativeness  heuristic allows people to judge the likelihood that an object belongs in a general category  or class based on how similar the object is to members of that category. To explain the representativeness heuristic, Tversky and Kahneman provided the example of an individual named Steve, who is â€Å"very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful, but with little interest in people or reality. A meek and tidy soul, he has a need for order and structure, and a passion for detail.† What is the probability that Steve works in a specific occupation (e.g. librarian or doctor)? The researchers concluded that, when asked to judge this probability, individuals would make their judgment based on how similar Steve seemed to the stereotype of the given occupation. The anchoring and adjustment heuristic allows people to estimate a number by starting at an initial value (the â€Å"anchor†) and adjusting that value up or down. However, different initial values lead to different estimates, which are in turn influenced by the initial value. To demonstrate the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, Tversky and Kahneman asked participants to estimate the percentage of African countries in the UN. They found that, if participants were given an initial estimate as part of the question (for example, is the real percentage higher or lower than 65%?), their answers were rather close to the initial value, thus seeming to be anchored to the first value they heard. The availability heuristic allows people to assess how often an event occurs or how likely it will occur, based on how easily that event can be brought to mind. For example, someone might estimate the percentage of middle-aged people at risk of a heart attack by thinking of the people they know who have had heart attacks. Tversky and Kahnemans findings led to the development of the heuristics and biases research program. Subsequent works by researchers  have introduced a number of other heuristics. The Usefulness of Heuristics There are several theories for the usefulness of heuristics. The  accuracy-effort trade-off  theory  states that humans and animals use heuristics because processing every piece of information that comes into the brain takes time and effort. With heuristics, the brain can make faster and more efficient decisions, albeit at the cost of accuracy.   Some suggest that this theory works because not every decision is worth spending the time necessary to reach the best possible conclusion, and thus people use mental shortcuts to save time and energy.  Another interpretation of this theory is that the brain simply does not have the capacity to process everything, and so we  must  use mental shortcuts. Another explanation for the usefulness of heuristics is the  ecological rationality theory. This theory states that some heuristics are best used in specific environments, such as uncertainty and redundancy. Thus, heuristics are particularly relevant and useful in specific situations, rather than at all times. Sources Gigerenzer, G., and Gaissmeier, W. â€Å"Heuristic decision making.† Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 62, 2011, pp. 451-482.Hertwig, R., and Pachur, T. â€Å"Heuristics, history of.† In International Encyclopedia of the Social Behavioral Sciences, 2 Editionnd, Elsevier, 2007.â€Å"Heuristics representativeness.† Cognitive Consonance.Simon. H. A. â€Å"A behavioral model of rational choice.† The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 69, no. 1, 1955, pp. 99-118.Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. â€Å"Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.† Science, vol. 185, no. 4157, pp. 1124-1131.