Sunday, July 5, 2020

Leadership - Goal-path Theory - Free Essay Example

Nowadays, one of the most respectful theories of leadership is the goal-path theory. Developed by Robert House, the goal-path theory is a model of contingency that extracts the key elements of the investigation performed by the Ohio University about the initial structure, consideration and motivational theory of the expectations (House, 1971). The theory , that has as predecessors the work s of Evans in 1970, House in 1971, House and Dessler in 1974 and House and Mitchell in 1974, and that emerged as an alternative to the behavioral model of leadership, It is based on how leaders motivate their followers to perform better and became more satisfied with their work (Evans, 1974). It tries to clarify how the conduct of the leader influences on the satisfaction and performance of the subordinates, similar to the expectation theory of Victor Vroom (Van Eerde, Thierry, 1996). Also explaining how the behavior of the leader affects the satisfaction and performance and stating th at the perceived value of a reward produce certain behaviors, well known also as the expectation and the preference for those results is called by Vroom as valence (Vroom, 1964). The essence of the path-goal theory is that the leaders role is not to assist followers in attaining their goals or to provide direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or the organization (House, 1996). The path- goal term is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify and clear the road to help their followers to move from where they are to a level in which they achieve their work goals and make the journey more enjoyable by reducing the obstacles and dangers. According to this theory, the behavior of a leader is acceptable to subordinates to the extent that it is seen by them as immediate satisfaction or as a means of future satisfactionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s source. The behavior of a leader is motivational in the level that leader makes the subordinate to require satisfaction for an effective performance, the leader provide instruction, guidance, support and rewards that are required for effective performance (Ashour, Johns, 1983). To prove these statements, House identified four leadership behaviors. The managerial leader allows subordinates know what is expected of them, schedules the work to be performed and gives specific guidelines how to accomplish tasks. This is parallel to the dimension of Ohio State on initiating structure. A friendly leader shows support and concern for the needs of their subordinates; this essentially stands for the dimension of the consideration of the University of Ohio. The leader that participates consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions before make a decision. . The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects subordinates to perform at their highest level. In contrast to the Fiedler standpoint of the behavior of the leader, House assumed that l eaders are flexible (Schuler, 1976).The theory of goal-path then means that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors depending on the situation. The theory proposes two kinds of situational or contingency variables that affect and level the relationship between leadership behavior and outcome, those in the environment that are beyond the control of the subordinate, as in task structure, the formal system of authority and group work and those that are part of the subordinate personal characteristics as in locus of control, experience and perceived capacity (Schriesheim, Schriesheim, 1980). Environmental factors determine the type of leader behavior required as a complement if the results of the subordinate will be maximized, while the personal characteristics determine how the environment and the behavior of the leader will be interpreted. Thus, the theory proposes that the behavior of leader will not be effective if it becomes redundant with the sources of the envi ronment structure or inconsistent with the characteristics of the subordinates. Many concepts derived from the theory of path-goal, since the ones that states that directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when the tasks are ambiguous or when tension are highly structured and well designed, the same it might be perceived as redundant to employees. high experience; to the ones that states that directive leadership leads to higher employee satisfaction only where there is a substantial conflict in the workgroup, also stating that the subordinates with internal locus of control, those who believe that control their own destiny, will be more satisfied with a participation style than the ones with external locus of control, that will be more satisfied with a managerial style. The research used to validate these concepts is generally encouraging. The evidence supports the logic underlying the theory. That is, the performance and the satisfaction of the employee are probably po sitively influenced when the leader compensates for missing skills from the employee or the work environment. However, the leader who dedicates time explaining the tasks when they are already clear or when the employee has the ability and experience to handle them without interference, may prove ineffective because the worker will see this type of management as redundant or even as an insulting behavior. The path-goal model differs from the situational model of Hersey and Blanchard in 1969, in which the leader must adapt to their level of development of the subordinates, or from contingency theory, that seeks to match the style of leader with specific situational variables. In the model path-goal the leaderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s style relates to the characteristics of the subordinate and the type of work environment. House and Mitchell argue that a leader can display any or all the styles according to the type of situation (House, 1996).Those more effective leaders, as we mentioned before, will be the ones that can adapt their style to the specific situations. A derivative research performed by Wofford and Liska in 1993, compiling more than 120 experiments, found that the results of the different studies varied notably if a different instrument of measurement is used , even when valuing the same dimensions (Wofford, Liska, 1994). They also found that the characteristics of the job influenced highly on the conduct and style of leadership and on the performance of the subalterns. When situational changes occur, leaders are expected to change their conduct with respect to the follower (Ivancevich, 1997). The leader must present ability to identify which behavior is the most effective based on the situation that comes their way, and may arise from the type of follower they face (Ivancevich, 1997). Therefore they identified that the key factors in this theory are the behavior and situational factors, and that the correspondence established between both factors will result in effective leadership emphasizing again, that the primary role of the leader is to motivate their followers clarify the ways that help them achieve their objectives or goals (Hogg, 2012). In terms of supporting conduct, it will have more positive effects when the employee is in need of emotional or philological support when facing a task. The research is based by dividing groups of subalterns in conditions of poor clarity, interesting, but without structure; and conditions of high prediction or routines. For the first case, the researchers will find positive effects in motivation and performance only if the leader shows a directive conduct and the contrary effect will be the result of the leader showing a supporting conduct or consideration. In terms of the empirical support of the theory, it is proved that the supporting conduct is generally linked to positive attitudes of the subordinates under difficult tasks, for the directive conduct the results are always less consistent. Kerr and Jermier extended the line of research, to the extent of the substitute for the leadership, where they focused their investigation on the conditions under the leadership is unnecessary due to the capacity of the subaltern, the clarity of the organizational system and procedures (Kerr, Jermier, 1978). However some researchers have revived the hypothesis derived from path-goal theory and has found minimal empirical support (Podsakoff, Organ, 1986). In conclusion, a manager centered and focused on his subordinates will not only offer great salaries and promotions but he will also offer support, encouragement, security and respect. This type of manager will be also sensible to the differences in between his teams and he will adapt the rewards to each subordinate. The subalterns of a manager oriented with the path-goal theory will know exactly what level of productivity or performance they need to reach to obtain bonus, raises, or promotions (Vecchio, , Justin, Pearce, 2008). For the path-goal model is important to define the objectives first, in order to establish a future flow of great performance for the long and short term. It is important to mention that this definition will depend of the internal faith of the leader, based on his capacities and competences (Stinson, Johnson, 1975). Coincidentally with the other situational theories, the leader must be aware of the reasons why leadership continuously changes, for which he should be prepared to, develop a wide variety of responses to efficiently allow each situation that he will experience (Schriesheim, Chester, Mary Ann Von Glinow, 1977). The future prospects of the path-goal theory point in the direction of further research leading to strengthen refine and expand their premises incorporating some additional moderating variables and shed their behavioral bias. However it is possible that the assigned rewards not meet the expectations of subordinates and that the resources are not entirely adequate and sufficient for the goal, it can be affirmed given the increasingly strong tendency to achieve higher levels of productivity with resources scarce (Fulk, Wendler, 1982). Thus we have from how leaders motivate their followers, leadership can be positive if it is associated with rewards or negative if the motivation is based on punishment, not to mention the tendency or propensity to prioritize, this classification at all simplistic answers to behavioral character is assumed to understand motivation as a stimulus that determines behavior (Ivancevich, Matteson, Freedman, Phillips, 1990).There is a great necessity to have with a leadership theory that take in consideration context variables in order to know which actions the leader shall take and which ones he should not (Triandis, 1993). Although this model indicates logically a play form of leadership, it is not entirely effective for all organizations or for all types of people who are involved in carrying out the work. That is why efforts have been made to find valid classifications for leadership styles, understanding the style as a set of behaviors that leader exhibit and the particular way they are perceived by their subordinates, that is in fact the leadership in the practice. The theoretical effort to attribute classifications in path theory is a resource for the leader to choose or modify their particular style to influence in other way, leading to different behaviors, however, analysis has realized that leaders do not maintain permanent and one-line fashion style, in fact it changes according to the circumstances, raising a claim for more research (Greene, 1974). . House, R. J. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative science quarterly, 321-339 Evans, M. G. (1974). Extensions of a path-goal theory of motivation. Stinson, J. E., Johnson, T. W. (1975). The path-goal theory of leadership: A partial test and suggested refinement. Academy o f Management Journal, 18(2), 242-252 Schriesheim, J. F., Schriesheim, C. A. (1980). A Test of the pathÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ goal theory of leadership and some suggested directions for future research. Personnel Psychology, 33(2), 349-370. Ashour, A. S., Johns, G. (1983). Leader influence through operant principles: A theoretical and methodological framework.Human Relations,36(7), 603-626 Schuler, R. S. (1976). Participation with supervisor and subordinate authoritarianism: A path-goal theory reconciliation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 320-325. Wofford, J. C., Liska, L. Z. (1994). Path-goal theories of leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 19(4), 857-876. Podsakoff, P. M., Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of management, 12(4), 531-544 Kerr, S., Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational behavior and human performance, 22(3), 375-403. Hogg, M. A., van Knippenberg, D., Rast, D. E. (2012). Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Review, 37(2), 232-255 Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Freedman, S. M., Phillips, J. S. (1990). Worksite stress management interventions. American Psychologist, 45(2), 252 House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-352. Schriesheim, Chester, and Mary Ann Von Glinow. (1977). The path-goal theory of leadership: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Academy of Management Journal 20.3, 398-405. Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., Pearce, C. L. (2008). The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a pathÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ goal theory framework. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 71-82. Van Eerde , W., Thierry, H. (1996). Vrooms expectancy models and work-related criteria: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 81(5), 575. Fulk, J., Wendler, E. R. (1982). Dimensionality of leaderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ subordinate interactions: A pathà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ goal investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30(2), 241-264. Greene, C. N. (1974). The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: A Replication and an Analysis of Causality. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1974, No. 1, pp. 47-47). Academy of Management. Vroom, V. (1964). Expectancy theory. Triandis, H. C. (1993). The contingency model in cross-cultural perspective

Saturday, June 27, 2020

How to Write an Essay for IELTS

How to Write an Essay for IELTS? English is a power world known language, which leads businesses, countries, continents, rally people from whole the world. And due to that, more and more people in recent years want to pass international exams, such as TOEFL, CAE, IELTS (International English Language Testing System), FCE and a lot of others. On the one hand, there are people who need such certificate to confirm the level of English reading, listening and writing skills, on the other hand, this document gives a perfect chance for everyone to get an   immigration visa, in order to build a successful career in the one of the European countries or to find a good job or study abroad. This article presents such an international system as IELTS and shows the right methods of preparing for its Writing Part. Firstly, a few words should be told about this exam. IELTS was designed to test the level of the English knowledge by the three international organizations, the leaders in examination field. They are Cambridge English Language Assessment (CELA),   the British Council and IELTS Australia. Thus, it is an irreplaceable step in everyones’ dreams’ implementation if they plan to change a place of living, want to find a perspective workplace or decide to investigate universities in any of the English-speaking countries. IELTS test results may help everyone to reach even a particular dream, because this test results are now admitted by more than 10,000 organizations in 150 countries of the world, including immigration agencies, universities, colleges, famous employers, professional worldwide organizations, and other public institutions in a lot of countries, among which are: United Kingdom, Australia, Italy, Germany and others well-known ones. Taking the IELTS exam, everyone should be ready to be tested on the four main language skills: listening, reading, writing and speaking. IELTS Writing is a test system which check the written English skills, the total duration of which is 60 minutes. The IELTS Writing block consists of two tasks: the first task (150 words) it is a description of a graph or a graphic pattern (report) and the second task (250 words) is an essay one. Now, we are going to understand how to prepare properly to write the second part of the IELTS Writing block. As Writing is evaluated on four parameters, each of which carries 25% of the assessment, we will try to consider the percent correct preparation, taking into account these parameters. IELTS essay is a specific written work. Word â€Å"Specific† means a special approach to its writing. So, how about the IELTS Writing test? Do you know that in consequence with the official statistics of the IELTS Writing Exam is the hardest? When you understand clearly that you really need to pass this exam try to do the next options first of all: Arrange an every day meeting with your tutor to check the essay, which you prepared; Ask your friend/girlfriend to check the essay at home; Visit any essay writing courses, which help you to prepare your essay. If you still decide to prepare for essay writing with your own, first of all, we advise to stay focused, read the task and just then begin to write. Do that only when you exactly imagine what will be the outcome of your story. It may take you near ten minutes to think about the essay plan and emphasize all the information which you are going to use in the essay. In the written part of the IELTS exam, you will need to show your vocabulary’s rich. Therefore, check also your text on the presence of â€Å"words-parasites† or repeated words. COGNIZE YOURSELF AS A WRITER â€Å"Cognize yourself† is one of the most famous philosophical statements. What attitude does it have to the essay writing? Did Platon mean the IELTS test have been writing down his thoughts? Of course not, but The idea is that you should check your mistakes when you write an essay. The point is not to find out all fatal mistakes, but little ones in order to save time on the exam. Instead, it will be more useful for you to check for common essay mistakes. As a rule, each student creates a list of his/hers typical, popular errors during the IELTS Writing preparation. WRITE A LOT TO GET BETTER The only way to complete successfully essay writing part is to write a lot and often. The regular practice will improve your skills and expand knowledge, so do not neglect it. The best option is to use special aids, which contains examples of essays and assignments to them.   The more you practice, the more likely you will have time to keep within the allotted few minutes to check your work during the main IELTS exam. The practice will allow you to fix in mind the structure of different types of essays, the approximate time which required for various types of writing tasks and the basic thoughts on a given topic, and spend the precious minutes on the test. First, we have to note that you can find a great variety of topics for essays writing on the Internet and after a couple months of practice in such writing you realize that in fact the common themes are very limited. There is a set of common themes, such as society communication, environmental pollution, harmful lifestyle, modern technologies, the relationship of children and parents, relations between teenagers etc. And of these topics have already formulated the final theme, paraphrased, are specified. And of these topics have already formulated the final theme. Thus, if you are able to determine for itself several abstracts in each of these subjects, then you will pass the exam with ease because you will you already prepared theses for the particular subject and not waste time on think about the structure or idea. Remember that the exam time is enough only for the transfer of ready-made ideas on paper, you have no extra minutes to think about the issue. Therefore, think about all the themes at home, and practice to write an exam in the quiet environment. Quite a large list of topics you can find here. Read more Essay Writing articles: THE SEVEN RULES OF USING MLA ESSAY FORMAT HOW TO GENERATE AN ESSAY CITATION LIST IN FOUR EASY STEPS HOW TO FORMAT ESSAY. EXAMPLE MLA, APA ESSAY FORMAT UNDERSTAND YOUR MISTAKES It will be not enough just to watch and write texts because you also need to work on a lot of mistakes. You have to study grammar and spelling   in-depth, drawing attention to the verbs, the construction and alignment proposals, punctuation and spelling difficult words. The essay must be checked by the experienced teacher because it is not easy to prepare for IELTS essay without attending special courses. And, of course, you must not forget to expand constantly your vocabulary the lack of the right words often prevents to express our thoughts   in right way and affects badly on essay’s quality. FIND THE TUTOR Find the teacher who will check your essay. It is desirable to find a native-speaker teacher specializing in IELTS. He will give you good advice, assess your essay under the same criteria as the examiner will. However, if you are sure that you can understand the structure and all the specifics yourself, it is possible just to limit by any native-speaker who will simply test your grammatical errors, syntax, punctuation and natural sounding. REMEMBER ABOUT OFFICIAL ESSAY STRUCTURE The types of essays are divided into 3 types: Argument essay (agree or disagree); Discussion essay (discuss both views and give your opinion); Advantages / disadvantages of the statement, problems / solutions. Total official structure of the essay is: The introduction 2-3 sentences. Paraphrasing topic (general statement); The first paragraph here you should conclude the topic without giving your opinion; The second paragraph reasons why, arguments, examples; Third paragraph reasons why/arguments/examples Summary 1-2 sentences. Final short paragraph. Paraphrase the main topic and express your views about the whole essay. You can not write any new ideas, just paraphrasing what has been written above. Very briefly.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Heuristics The Psychology of Mental Shortcuts

Heuristics (also called â€Å"mental shortcuts† or â€Å"rules of thumb) are efficient mental processes that help humans solve problems and learn new concepts. These processes make problems less complex by ignoring some of the information that’s coming into the brain, either consciously or unconsciously. Today, heuristics  have become an influential concept in the areas  of judgment and decision-making. Key Takeaways: Heuristics Heuristics are efficient mental processes (or mental shortcuts)  that help humans solve problems or learn a new concept.In the 1970s, researchers Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman identified three key heuristics: representativeness, anchoring and adjustment, and availability.The work of Tversky and Kahneman led to the development of the heuristics and biases research program. History and Origins Gestalt psychologists postulated that humans solve problems and perceive objects based on heuristics. In the early 20th century, the psychologist Max Wertheimer identified laws by which humans group objects together into patterns (e.g. a cluster of dots in the shape of a rectangle). The heuristics most commonly studied today are those that deal with decision-making. In the 1950s, economist and political scientist Herbert Simon published his A  Behavioral Model of Rational Choice, which focused on the concept of  on bounded rationality:  the idea that people must make decisions with limited time, mental resources, and information. In 1974, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman pinpointed specific mental processes used to simplify decision-making. They showed that humans rely on a limited set of heuristics when making decisions with information about which they are uncertain—for example, when deciding whether to exchange money for a trip overseas now or a week from today. Tversky and Kahneman also showed that, although heuristics are useful, they can lead to errors in thinking that are both predictable and unpredictable. In the 1990s, research on heuristics, as exemplified by the work of Gerd Gigerenzer’s research group, focused on how factors in the environment impact thinking–particularly, that the strategies the mind uses are influenced by the environment–rather than the idea that the mind uses mental shortcuts to save time and effort. Significant Psychological Heuristics Tversky and Kahneman’s 1974 work, Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, introduced three key characteristics: representativeness, anchoring and adjustment, and availability.   The  representativeness  heuristic allows people to judge the likelihood that an object belongs in a general category  or class based on how similar the object is to members of that category. To explain the representativeness heuristic, Tversky and Kahneman provided the example of an individual named Steve, who is â€Å"very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful, but with little interest in people or reality. A meek and tidy soul, he has a need for order and structure, and a passion for detail.† What is the probability that Steve works in a specific occupation (e.g. librarian or doctor)? The researchers concluded that, when asked to judge this probability, individuals would make their judgment based on how similar Steve seemed to the stereotype of the given occupation. The anchoring and adjustment heuristic allows people to estimate a number by starting at an initial value (the â€Å"anchor†) and adjusting that value up or down. However, different initial values lead to different estimates, which are in turn influenced by the initial value. To demonstrate the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, Tversky and Kahneman asked participants to estimate the percentage of African countries in the UN. They found that, if participants were given an initial estimate as part of the question (for example, is the real percentage higher or lower than 65%?), their answers were rather close to the initial value, thus seeming to be anchored to the first value they heard. The availability heuristic allows people to assess how often an event occurs or how likely it will occur, based on how easily that event can be brought to mind. For example, someone might estimate the percentage of middle-aged people at risk of a heart attack by thinking of the people they know who have had heart attacks. Tversky and Kahnemans findings led to the development of the heuristics and biases research program. Subsequent works by researchers  have introduced a number of other heuristics. The Usefulness of Heuristics There are several theories for the usefulness of heuristics. The  accuracy-effort trade-off  theory  states that humans and animals use heuristics because processing every piece of information that comes into the brain takes time and effort. With heuristics, the brain can make faster and more efficient decisions, albeit at the cost of accuracy.   Some suggest that this theory works because not every decision is worth spending the time necessary to reach the best possible conclusion, and thus people use mental shortcuts to save time and energy.  Another interpretation of this theory is that the brain simply does not have the capacity to process everything, and so we  must  use mental shortcuts. Another explanation for the usefulness of heuristics is the  ecological rationality theory. This theory states that some heuristics are best used in specific environments, such as uncertainty and redundancy. Thus, heuristics are particularly relevant and useful in specific situations, rather than at all times. Sources Gigerenzer, G., and Gaissmeier, W. â€Å"Heuristic decision making.† Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 62, 2011, pp. 451-482.Hertwig, R., and Pachur, T. â€Å"Heuristics, history of.† In International Encyclopedia of the Social Behavioral Sciences, 2 Editionnd, Elsevier, 2007.â€Å"Heuristics representativeness.† Cognitive Consonance.Simon. H. A. â€Å"A behavioral model of rational choice.† The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 69, no. 1, 1955, pp. 99-118.Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. â€Å"Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.† Science, vol. 185, no. 4157, pp. 1124-1131.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Effects Of Violent Media On Aggressive Behavior

Abstract Present paper explores seven peer-reviewed and scholary articles to examine the positive corrlation between violent media and aggressive behaviors in individuals. This paper represents an effort to provide a source for individuals who are interested to gain information on the effect of violent media on aggressive behaviors. Most of the peer-reviewed and scholary articles used in this paper provided conclusions that violent media have multiply harmful affects on individuals especially children. Krahà © and Mà ¶ller (2011) discussed the relationship between usage of violent media and aggressive behaviors in adolescents. Furthermore, Wiedeman, Black, Dolle, Finney, Coker (2015) revealed various negative effect of violent media on individuals including higher level of aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Cheng et al., (2004) not only mentioned the effects of violent media on children it also emphasized on parents’ role to monitor their children s violent media watching in or der to minimize the negative outcomes. The Effect of Violent Media on Aggressive Behavior Essentially since media is more violent than ever, and children and youth are getting more attracted to violent media. Studies on violent media shows a clear evidence that violence on media rises the possibility of aggressive behaviors in both short-term and long-term situations (Rowell Huesmann, Moise, Podolski, Eron, 2003). Most researchers agree that aggressive behaviors are more disposed toShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Violent Media On Children And Youth990 Words   |  4 PagesEssentially since media is more violent than ever, and children and youth are getting more attracted to violent media. Studies on violent media shows a clear evidence that violence on media rises the possibility of aggressive behaviors in both short-term and long-term situations (Rowell Huesmann, Moise, Podolski, Eron, 2003). Most researchers agree that aggressive behaviors are more disposed to the harmful impact of violence on media. The negative effect is much larger for younger children becauseRead MoreViolent Media And Its Impact On Aggression1544 Words   |  7 PagesViolent Media and Its Impact On Aggression In Adolescence In recent trends, adolescents in the United States are now experiencing an explosive rise in the usage of technology. There have been many technological advances since the 20th century such as the invention of the Internet, cellular devices, and other screens. However, the new generation of adolescents in America; the â€Å"millennials,† are the ones living through and experiencing this new economy and lifestyle. Millennials and many other youngRead MoreGeneral Aggression Model Of Human Aggression1280 Words   |  6 Pagesfollowing aggressive behavior, aggressive effect (i.e., physiological stimulation), aggressive cognition, (i.e., thoughts), reduced pro-social behavior, and reduced empathy (i.e., emotional facets) (Anderson and Bushman, 2001; Barlett and Anderson 2013). As a process model, GAM can be divided into two explanatory mechanisms; a) proximate and distal GAM (Anderson Carnagey, 2004) or b) proximate GAM as single-episode GAM and multiple-episode GAM (see. Anders on Bushman, 2001) as (long-term) effects ofRead MoreMedia s Influence On The Youth Of America1454 Words   |  6 PagesMedia in the United States has a prominent role on the youth of America. A majority of children and young adults have access to internet, television, radio, newspapers, and video games practically any time they want. 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Castro #21856730 Submitted for SSC130BB: Essentials of Psychology January 25, 2014 Research project #05020500 Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior Introduction In the early 1960s Albert Bandura conducted his famous â€Å"Bobo Doll† experiments, in which children were shown videos of someone attacking a plastic clown known as a Bobo doll (Isom, 1998). Many of the children exposed to theseRead MoreViolent Behavior : The Contributors1706 Words   |  7 PagesTriggering Violent Behavior: the Contributors Violence can be everywhere but what may actually trigger violent behaviors is difficult to figure out. Many believe violent behavior is triggered by a certain outcome. Although this may be true, violent behavior can be triggered by a combination of factors. Media, Chemicals, and even society are all known as factors that can influence one to become violent. Forms of violent behavior include aggression, aggravation, and/or frustration. Aggression isRead MoreMedia Violence And Its Effects1057 Words   |  5 Pages Media violence exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for aggression behavior for years. The impact of exposure to violence in the media the long term development and short term development of aggressive behavior has been documented. Aggression is caused by several factors, of which media violence is one. Research investigating the effects of media violence in conjunction with other predictors of aggression such as; environmental factors and dysfunction within the family household,Read MoreViolent Video Games And Its Influence On Behavior1187 Words   |  5 Pages The Timing of Violent Video Games and Its Influence on Aggressive Behaviors What images pop up in your head when you hear the word aggression? Have you ever thought whether violence portrayed in different forms of media make people more aggressive? The immediate reaction to such a word is fighting or violence. Many issues are determinants of aggression but media violence has played a huge role in influencing aggressive behavior. Over the past years, aggression has been tied to numerousRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System: Media Violence and Social Justice724 Words   |  3 Pagesadults who are exposed to the media are aggressive and violent. According to such articles, violent content provokes aggressive behavior and violence. Ferguson illustrates that watching satanic content, like in Harry Potter, or teaching of witchcraft can lead to Satanism or mental illness. According to Ferguson (2008), books, rock, jazz, television and watching movies in the media, leads to a wave of moral degradation, rebelliousness and violence. They also clam that ne w media like internet and video games

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Interests And Interactions Shape Science And Technology

HOW INTERESTS AND INTERACTIONS SHAPE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Ian Hacking uses the example of dolomite in order to show that human interests do not play a role in science. His belief is that there is nothing less socially constructed than a rock, but this statement does not accurately portray the facts. Dolomite has a long history that involves a number of people and social interests. Each person contributed to the discovery and identification of dolomite and social factors were at play during the scientific process. Hackling starts with the history of dolomite. In 1791, a French geologist, Deodat de Dolomieu, came across a type of limestone in the Tyrolean Alps. Then in 1792, Nicolas-Theodor von Saussure named the region and the layer of sedimentary rock after Dolomieu. Saussure then analyzed dolomite; he claimed that it was high in aluminum and held no magnesium. However, this analysis was incorrect and it would take a decade to get the correct analysis. Dolomite is an interesting example because it shows that scientific facts have a social f actor that is often ignored. Geologists stuck with Saussure’s analysis even though twelve years earlier a scientist by the name of Giovanni Arduino identified dolomite as magnesia limestone (Hacking, 187). Arduino correctly identified dolomite’s composition but very few people paid attention to his analysis. Dolomite was named after Dolomieu because he had come across dolomite. The compound was not named after Arduino nor was hisShow MoreRelatedShould Technology Be Taught 21st Century?1568 Words   |  7 PagesWhen it comes to the topic of allowing technology in the child care classrooms, most of us will willingly agree that digital technologies provide one more outlet for young children to demonstrate their creativity and learning. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of including iPads into the curriculum in a preschool classroom. 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An Analysis Of Susan Glaspell s A Heavy Conscience Essay

A Heavy Conscience Trifles by Susan Glaspell is a short play built around the murder of John Wright. One might say that this play is dull and boring. However, that is far from the case. There are numerous entwined themes and ideas throughout the play. With closer examination of Glaspell’s work it is clear that there is a far greater plot in action. Mrs. Minnie Wright has been arrested for the murder of her husband while the investigation is active. Interestingly enough the murder is not the focused of this play. The focus is how two wives Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters identify with the accused. Throughout the play the wives uncover several seemingly insignificant clues which provide insight on the daily life Mrs. Wright before the death of her husband. Although both women ultimately end up identifying themselves with Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Hale appears to only aid Mrs. Wright due to the overwhelming guilt and shame she feels after learning of the circumstances Mrs. Wright life. Mrs. Hale feels guilty for not noticing how confined and isolated Mrs. Wright truly was. Mrs. Hale knew Mrs. Wright before she was married back when she was Minnie Foster, so she feels as though she should have offered Minnie more support. Periodically throughout the play Mrs. Hale reminisces over the former Minnie Foster. She recalls enjoyable and happy memories of Minnie when she was full of life. She goes on and states, â€Å"She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively, when she was Minnie Foster, one ofShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of Susan Glaspell s A Heavy Conscience 936 Words   |  4 Pages A Heavy Conscience Trifles by Susan Glaspell is a short play built around the murder of John Wright. One might say that this play is dull and boring. However, that is far from the case. There are numerous entwined themes and ideas throughout the play. With closer examination of Glaspell’s work it is clear that there is a far greater plot in action. Mrs. Minnie Wright has been arrested for the murder of her husband while the investigation is active. Interestingly enough the murder is not the focused

Role Of Anticipated Guilt General Emotions †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Role Of Anticipated Guilt General Emotions? Answer: Introduction A research has been made on the ethical issue of downloading music and videos from the different sources of internet. The report is prepared after considering different viewpoints regarding the piracy of the music and the videos and the copyright issues regarding the files. The given investigation portrays how people have an alternate perspective towards downloading music or video from the web illicitly. It may not be moral, and downloaders may be sued for copyright encroachment, yet there are no laws that criminalize Australians downloading and watching content for their individual utilize. In addition, when theft is done, it implies that duplicates of a few records are made unlawfully without the consent of the copyright proprietor. The paper displayed examines downloading motion picture and television in light of the diverse speculations of morals when inferred to the investigation. Overview of ICT-Related Ethical Issue For this situation examine two standards are utilized to comprehend the moral issues on downloading motion pictures and TV. However, before it is clarified the speculations ought to be seen plainly. It is a moral issue for the downloader and lawful advances can be taken and copyright encroachment notice can be given to the downloader. In any case, there are no laws that criminalize Australians downloading and watching content for their own particular individual utilize (, 2016). There are different music fans who can illegally download the media content of the record industry across the world and illegally download music and cause piracy. The piracy is required to be stopped and a warning is required to be created for the spreading the awareness among the people that the illegal access can cause infringement and suspension of the account. Application of ethical theory to the analysis Consequentialism: This hypothesis decides the result of the move made by a person. The result of an activity is controlled by applying this hypothesis, when an individual take part in doing some work they should consider the result from that work as per their ecological encompassing. This implies an individual ought not to do an errand that negatively affects nature. As an individual he should believe that he is doing well or wrong occupation and its consequences (Carlson, 2013). In view of the point downloading film or television from web an individual ought to consider his moral esteems and judge himself that what might be the impact in the event that he downloads a substance that is copyright ensured (Vossen, 2014). The individual ought to not generally consider his benefit instead of put some focus on the impact that would be caused for their work done. The goal of the action are not considered before taking any action for accessing the web contents like the music and videos. Non-Consequentialism: In this hypothesis the individual occupied with doing some activity doesn't consider the result of the work they do. The result is judged in the wake of completing the assignment and on that premise the following move is made. Morals has as minimal influence in Non-Consequentialism the significant concentrate of the individual is on finishing his undertaking (Nye et al., 2015). A copyright theft can cause jail for the hackers and affect the morality of the hacker hacking the media and the videos. The moral goodness and the badness of the hacker is required to be considered for the analysis of the ethical theory for analyzing the rightness and wrongness of the action taken by the people for accessing the music and the videos available on the website. The goals and consequence of the action is required to be considered for implementation of the action. Illegal Downloading is Stealing The ubiquity of web has expanded the offers of motion pictures, music in CD and DVDs. The deals have expanded alongside the expansion of unlawful download of the media. Different diverse projects like piece deluge, utorrent and other direct downloading programs permits the downloading of this media. A few conceives that the downloading of tunes and motion pictures from the web is like the taking of music CDs from the shop. At the point when a paid media is downloaded unlawfully through a downpour or any direct download programming it implies that the media is dispersed free of cost through the download customer while alternate clients pays cash to purchase that same media. Downloading the media that is copyright secured is an unlawful movement (Wang and McClung, 2012). The craftsmen makes CDs for the joy of the general population and it costs them a great deal and consequently they anticipate that everybody will pay cash to purchase their CDs. In this regard downloading a media illic itly is likeness taking CD from the nearby store (Cockrill and Goode, 2012). There are numerous laws against the copyright and infringing upon this law can cause an enormous fine on the downloader. On the off chance that anybody is discovered downloading paid media with copyright security the copyright proprietor can document a body of evidence against him and it can cause fine or correctional facility. Downloading the media isn't right, and everybody ought to have an ethical esteem and comparative discipline is given for taking media from the store. No discipline or fine ought to be given for downloading music or motion pictures that are free in the web. YouTube is totally free for the client to watch music recordings and if online recordings can be seen on YouTube with the expectation of complimentary then anybody can have it on their PC too. Anybody can scan the web to tune in for a free tune however can't download it; it is outlandish that the download of the free substance causes lawful infringement. It is like record a TV appear from the link box. A few people may feel that they pay for the link association yet web is additionally not free, it is preferably more costly than a link association, individuals can put the recorded show in the web and it ought not to be unlawful for downloading it. A few people privateer it for cash and offering the video content for cash is unquestionably a theft and they ought to be fined for that (Aaltonen and Salmi, 2013). A few people have the perspective that, when they get the media with the expectation of complimentary then for what reason would they pay cash to get it, the ethical feeling of general society ought to grow up and there ought to be more mindfulness in regards to theft of the web content. Downloading a media that doesn't negatively affect the economy ought not to be considered as an illicit action. Recommendations There are numerous viable answers for explain downloading of motion pictures unlawfully, for example, This issue can be explained by executing a few directions on the source site from where the media is accessible. The proprietor of a few media can apply new enactment approaches for the medium through which the media is made accessible to the client. The cost for which the substance ought to be accessible to the client ought to be with the end goal that the client would pay cheerfully. More attention to debilitate the Australians for utilizing privateer locales and increment their moral esteem ought to be finished. The first substance ought to be made accessible to the web on their discharge this lessens the robbery to an extraordinary level. The school and open wifi supplier ought to be mindful to track the web utilization and for the encroachment take note. Conclusion: In this examination the topic legal restrictions on the downloading of music and videos from the internet should be abolished is considered in subtle elements and we presume that the media that is allowed to watch on the web ought to be allowed to download and the clients ought not get copyright encroachment see for that. The use of web to download paid substance from torrents or other engines can be considered as an illegal activity and is required to be considered as an unlawful action and fine can be forced for that. As this causes a gigantic misfortune in the economy, the craftsmen makes music CDs or DVDs that costs them and it ought not be made accessible to the general population at free of cost. References Carlson, E., 2013. Consequentialism reconsidered (Vol. 20). Springer Science Business Media. Cockrill, A. and Goode, M.M., 2012. DVD pirating intentions: Angels, devils, chancers and receivers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11(1), pp.1-10. Jacobs, R.S., Heuvelman, A., Tan, M. and Peters, O., 2012. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory. Computers in human behavior, 28(3), pp.958-967. Jambon, M.M. and Smetana, J.G., 2012. College students' moral evaluations of illegal music downloading. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(1), pp.31-39. Jnasson, J.O. and Gunnlaugsson, H., 2016, October. How widespread is cybercrime: Types and Volume of Public Vic-timization in Iceland. In NSfKs 58. Research Seminar (p. 446). Keipi, T., Nsi, M., Oksanen, A. and Rsnen, P., 2016. Online hate and harmful content: Cross-national perspectives (Vol. 200). Taylor Francis. Nandedkar, A. and Midha, V., 2012. It wont happen to me: An assessment of optimism bias in music piracy. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), pp.41-48. Nye, H., Plunkett, D. and Ku, J., 2015. Non-Consequentialism Demystified. Robertson, K., McNeill, L., Green, J. and Roberts, C., 2012. Illegal downloading, ethical concern, and illegal behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), pp.215-227. Saber, J.A., 2016. Determining Small Business Cybersecurity Strategies to Prevent Data Breaches (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). Vossen, C., 2014. Cyber Attacks Under the United Nations Charter. Critical Reflections on Consequentialist Reasoning. Wang, X. and McClung, S.R., 2012. The immorality of illegal downloading: The role of anticipated guilt and general emotions. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), pp.153-159